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Did You Know. People used to use urine to tan animal skins, so families used to all pee in a pot & then once a day it was taken & Sold to the tannery.......if you had to do this to survive you were "Piss Poor"
But worse than that were the really poor folk who couldn't even afford to buy a pot......they "didn't have a pot to piss in" & were the lowest of the low
The next time you are washing your hands and complain because the water temperature isn't just how you like it, think about how things used to be.
Here are some facts about the 1500s:
Most people got married in June because they took their yearly bath in May, and they still smelled pretty good by June.. However, since they were starting to smell . ...... . Brides carried a bouquet of flowers to hide the body odor. Hence the custom today of carrying a bouquet when getting Married.
Baths consisted of a big tub filled with hot water. The man of the house had the privilege of the nice clean water, then all the other sons and men, then the women and finally the children. Last of all the babies. By then the water was so dirty you could actually lose someone in it.. Hence the saying, "Don't throw the baby out with the Bath water!"
Houses had thatched roofs-thick straw-piled high, with no wood underneath. It was the only place for animals to get warm, so all the cats and other small animals (mice, bugs) lived in the roof. When it rained it became slippery and sometimes the animals would slip and fall off the roof... Hence the saying "It's raining cats and dogs."
There was nothing to stop things from falling into the house. This posed a real problem in the bedroom where bugs and other droppings could mess up your nice clean bed. Hence, a bed with big posts and a sheet hung over the top afforded some protection. That's how canopy beds came into existence.
The floor was dirt. Only the wealthy had something other than dirt. Hence the saying, "Dirt poor." The wealthy had slate floors that would get slippery in the winter when wet, so they spread thresh (straw) on floor to help keep their footing. As the winter wore on, they added more thresh until, when you opened the door, it would all start slipping outside. A piece of wood was placed in the entrance-way. Hence: a thresh hold.
In those old days, they cooked in the kitchen with a big kettle that always hung over the fire.. Every day they lit the fire and added things to the pot. They ate mostly vegetables and did not get much meat. They would eat the stew for dinner, leaving leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start over the next day. Sometimes stew had food in it that had been there for quite a while. Hence the rhyme: Peas porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge in the pot nine days old. Sometimes they could obtain pork, which made them feel quite special. When visitors came over, they would hang up their bacon to show off. It was a sign of wealth that a man could, "bring home the bacon." They would cut off a little to share with guests and would all sit around and chew the fat.
Those with money had plates made of pewter. Food with high acid content caused some of the lead to leach onto the food, causing lead poisoning death. This happened most often with tomatoes, so for the next 400 years or so, tomatoes were considered poisonous.
Bread was divided according to status. Workers got the burnt bottom of the loaf, the family got the middle, and guests got the top, or the upper crust.
Lead cups were used to drink ale or whisky. The combination would Sometimes knock the imbibers out for a couple of days. Someone walking along the road would take them for dead and prepare them for burial.. They were laid out on the kitchen table for a couple of days and the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up. Hence the custom of holding a wake.
England is old and small and the local folks started running out of places to bury people. So they would dig up coffins and would take the bones to a bone-house, and reuse the grave. When reopening these coffins, 1 out of 25 coffins were found to have scratch marks on the inside and they realized they had been burying people alive... So they would tie a string on the wrist of the corpse, lead it through the coffin and up through the ground and tie it to a bell. Someone would have to sit out in the graveyard all night (the graveyard shift.) to listen for the bell; thus, someone could be, saved by the bell or was considered a dead ringer.
And that's the truth....Now, whoever said History was boring?

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If you close your eyes in a completely dark room. When you open them, the color you see is called eigengrau, which means intrinsic gray. It's the shade of dark gray people see when there's no light.

The Chinese invented playing cards in AD 1000. It seems that al lot of math went into the development.
Did you know that the traditional deck of playing cards is a strikingly coherent form of a calendar?
There are 52 weeks in the year and there are 52 playing cards in a deck.
There are 13 weeks in each season and there are 13 cards in each suit.
There are 4 seasons in a year and 4 suits in the deck.
There are 12 months in a year so there are 12 court cards (those with faces, namely jack, queen, king) in each suit.
The red cards represent day, while black cards represent night
If you let jacks = 11, queens = 12, and kings = 13, then add up all
The sums of 1 + 2 + 3 + all the way to 13, you get 91.
Multiply this by 4, for the 4 suits, therefore 9x4 = 364, add 1 that is the joker and you will arrive at the number 365, being the number of days in a year.
Is that a mere coincidence or a greater intelligence?
Of interest is the sum of the letters in all the names of the cards, e.g., add up the letters in "one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, jack, queen, king = 52.
The spades indicate plowing or working.
The hearts indicate love the seasonal crops.
The clubs indicate flourishing and growth.
The diamonds indicate reaping the wealth.
Also, in some card games, two jokers are used, indicating the leap year.
There is a deeper philosophy than merely playing cards. The mathematical perfection is remarkable.

I don't know who needs to know this but even if a bear wears socks and shoes, he still has bear feet.

On March 27, 1689, Spanish Governor Alonso de León, with a force of 114 men, including future San Antonio “founding father” friar Damián Massanet, soldiers, servants, and muleteers left Coahuila on his fourth and final Entrada (Expedition) into northern uncharted New Spain. Ten days later, the expeditionary group ran smack into a large village of native Americans and the two completely different cultures came face-to-face. And, the natives did something that the Spaniards weren’t expecting.
The natives welcomed them with their "legendary hospitality greeting"; a cry or a cheer. The leader of the Native Americans advance party that day greeted the Spanish with one word, just one word. The word he yelled was "tayshas". Tayshas translates to friends or allies in their language.
According to the friar, the Native Americans that they encountered that day were friendly, accommodating, attractive people with a beautiful countenance. And what De León saw and experienced upon entering the village for the first time — was, in his-own-words, impressive.
These people had sophisticated agricultural skills, commenting on their well-tended fields of corn, beans, squash and watermelons. He noted their many villages with permanent dwellings, their cleanliness, and organization. Who were these beautiful people who greeted newcomers and strangers to their village as friends?
History remembers them as the Caddo Hasinai.
The Caddos migrated into East Texas from the Mississippi Valley around 800 A.D. Their territory included parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana and East Texas. At the height of their mound-building culture around 1200 A.D. the Caddos numbered 250,000 people. The Hasinai Confederacy was a large confederation of Caddo-speaking Native Americans, who occupied territory between the Sabine and Trinity rivers in eastern Texas.
When the Spanish and the French encountered the Hasinai in the 1680s, they found a centrally organized chiefdom under the control of a religious leader, known as the Grand Xinesi. This leader lived in a secluded house and met with a council of elders. The chieftainship consisted of several subdivisions, which have been designated cantonments. Each was under the control of a Caddi. There were also men designated as Canahas and Chayas, who helped the Caddi run the system.
The Caddos were the most advanced Native American culture in Texas. They lived in tall, grass-covered houses in large settlements with highly structured social, religious and political systems.
The Hasinai were also the largest confederation of Caddos in Deep East Texas. They lived along the Neches and Angelina rivers, with one of their most powerful settlements being in the present Caddo Mounds area west of Alto. The Nacogdoches tribe is included among these Hasinai Caddos.
The Caddos were travelers and traders, men of business, and they greeted everyone they met in their travels with the cry of tayshas!
History remembers that because of that greeting, the Spanish then called and identified the Caddo's nation as – Los (The) Tejas. The Spanish Church even built a mission in east Texas for the exclusive conversion of the Caddo Hasinai that was named, San Francisco de los Tejas. Many years later, Spanish land east of the Trinity became known as the Province of Tejas, which later gave its name to all of Texas.
And just like that, the Caddo word tayshas morphed into the word — Texas.
The Caddo lived in tall cone shaped grass huts. To build a hut, they made a wood frame and covered it with cut cane and long grasses. These huts were nicely furnished inside with furniture and were quite comfortable. One of the reasons the Spanish seemed to like the Caddo was because they had beds and chairs inside these huts. This reminded the Spanish of their-own beds and chairs. They would use buffalo skins with the hair on them as blankets to keep warm in the winter. These huts could be very large. The inside of the huts had woven grass and split cane mats on the floors. These same mats were hung up as partitions inside the hut. Often several families would live in one hut.
The Caddo were great and skilled farmers. They planted crops in large clearings in the woods. They raised corn, beans and squash. They also hunted the deer, turkey, rabbits, squirrels and other animals in the pine-woods around them. The women would gather wild plant food like acorns, black berries, persimmons, roots and many other plants and fruits. But, farming corn, beans, and squash provided the main source of food.
Hunting parties of men would be formed to travel west onto the Southern Plains were there were many buffalo at certain times of the year. This was a long trip that could take several weeks. The men would dry the buffalo meat to preserve it so they could carry it home. They also saved the valuable buffalo skins to tan and use as robes. Buffalo skins with the hair on them are very soft and warm.
Early European explorers reported finding the woods cleared like a European park. This means the grass was short and the undergrowth was cleared away. The Indians did not have tractors or lawn mowers to do this. They would set fires in the woods to burn away the old taller grass and small shrubs and bushes without hurting the old trees with thick bark. If this is done every year or so, the fire keeps the undergrowth out. The Indians would do this in the fall and winter. In the spring new green grass would get more sun and grow better on the burned areas than in undergrowth. This tender green grass would attract deer and animals to hunt. These fires also made it easier to find acorns and nuts on the ground.
The Caddo society was communal, an integrated whole woven together and tightly bound by kinship, custom, and expectation. Each Caddo lived life according to the expectations and traditions of her/his community. Age, sex, and kin group defined the roles of men and women, girls and boys. Group solidarity was reinforced by shared activities — building houses, planting and harvesting crops, feasts, dances, and rituals.
It is estimated that in 1520, the people who would become the Hasinai, the Kadohadacho and the Natchitoches, numbered about 250,000. Over the next 250 years, the population of these Caddoan-speaking peoples was severely reduced by epidemics of endemic diseases carried by Spanish and French colonists and spread through indigenous trading networks. It is thought that the first epidemics of Old World diseases, to which New World peoples had no immunity, spread widely and cruelly across the densely settled Eastern Woodlands before Europeans ever visited most areas.
During the succeeding centuries of European colonization, wave after wave of Old World diseases swept across native North America. It has been estimated that Caddo population may have fallen by as much as 95% between 1691 and 1816, a catastrophic change few human societies have survived.
Today, Texas is known around the world for its hospitality and friendliness, as a matter of fact, the Texas State motto is one word: Friendship.
I’d like to believe that the authors of our Texas-Style hospitality trait were the beautiful people that history remembers as the Caddo Hasinai.
This post is dedicated to all Caddo Hasinai descendants living today in Texas and around the world that continue to carry the torch handed down to them by the Caddo Hasinai of our past. And, Thank you to all Caddo Hasinai for your warm, heartfelt, friendly greeting and hospitality –— an example that many Texans still practice today.
Sources:
HASINAI INDIANS by Russell M. Magnaghi TSHA Texas State Historical Association
TEXAS, ORIGIN OF NAME TSHA Texas State Historical Association
Hasinai Wikipedia
Caddy Wikipedia
Pic Credit: Caddo Grand Xinesi from Painting by Reeda Peel, based on descriptions by Spanish explorers in the late 1600s. Website: https://catchlightartgallery.com/reeda-peel

'Avocado' actually comes from a word meaning 'testicle' When the Aztecs discovered the avocado in 500 BC, they named it āhuacatl, which translates to "testicle." It is likely that the texture, shape, and size of the fruit, as well as the way it grows in pairs, inspired the name of the avocado.

that's why i always carry 2 avocados in my pants pockets at all times.oh wait...nevermind.

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